发信人: USMedEdu (US_CMGs), 信区: MedicalCareer [删除]
标 题: Re: YJZ： 医网情深：5-22-2017病理实习笔记
发信站: BBS 未名空间站 (Tue Feb 13 22:25:07 2018, 美东)
Colon Polyps Summary
2018.02.13 00:06 打开App
By Zoe Z.
内镜下发现 pedunculated and sessile polyp 的过程，结合临床和病理学习做了总结
A 60 yo female complains of bright red rectal bleeding for 5 months. The
bleeding was intermittent and occurred with bowel movement in moderate
amount. She had rectal pain with defecation and the pain resolved
spontaneously afterwards. She had history of constipation for 2 years but
had one or two bowel movement every day recently. She had dizziness and
short of breath occasionally, but CBC results two weeks ago were WNL. She
had no fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, no recent weight loss, no change in
appetite and diet. She had a balanced diet with vegetables, fruit and meat.
PSH: two cesarean sections 30 and 25 years ago. Hemorrhoids resection 15
Medications: Statin, NSAIDS.
The patient was scheduled for colonoscopy. Two polyps were found. One is a
pedunculated polyp 3cm*1cm at descending colon, resected under the
colonoscopy;another is a sessile polyp 3.5cm*3cm with irregular contour and
superficial bleeding. Resection was attempted but not completed due to the
large size. The patient was scheduled for repeat resection in the hospital.
The biopsies were taken and sent for pathology examination.
A polyp of the colon is a tumorousmass that protrudes into the lumen above
the surrounding colonic mucosa. Theymay appear as sessile lesions without a
definable stalk, or they may form as astalked or pedunculated polyp. Based
on the malignant potential, Colon polypscan generally be classified as non-
neoplastic which do not have the malignantpotential, including inflammatory
polyps and hyperplastic polyps; andneoplastic polyps with adenomatous polyps
or adenomas comprising approximatelytwo thirds of all colon polyps.
Colon polyps are usually asymptomatic, but sometimes they may ulcerate and
bleed,causing tenesmus or intestinal obstruction if large. The polyps
including adenomas are most commonly detected by colon cancer screening
tests. The growth rates of different types of polyps, or even the same type
of polyps vary significantly. However, complete regression is uncommon.
Endoscopic presentation and classification
Adenomas may be pedunculated, sessile, flat, excavated, or depressed based
on their gross appearance under the endoscopy. The pedunculated polyp has a
narrow base, with a mucosal stalk between the polyp and the wall. For the
sessile polyps, the base and top of the lesion have the similar diameter.
Regardless of the gross morphology, there are several endoscopic features
suggestive of invasive cancer, including friability, ulceration and
induration. A firm consistency or adherence of the polyp to the underlying
tissue is also a concerning feature for malignancy.
Histological presentation and classification
1. Hyperplastic polyp
Hyperplastic polyps are the most common non-neoplastic polyps in colon. They
are typical located in the rectal-sigmoid colon. Hyperplasic polyps are
white or bland lesions. They usually present as small nodules (< 5mm in
diameter) with nipple-like, hemispheric and smooth appearance, but can be
large up to 2cm in diameter.
Three histologic subtypes have been described, including microvesicular,
goblet cell, and mucin depleted. The prominent feature of the hyperplastic
polyp as a non-neoplastic polyp is the normal architecture and proliferative
characteristics with no dysplasia. Maturation occurs towards the surface,
which is in contrast with adenoma where dysplasia appears on the surface and
extends down the crypt. The epithelial cells pile on the surface along the
length of the crypt, creating a serrated, longitudinal profile and star-
shaped lumen in cross sections. The glands have an increased number of
goblet cells and therefore look pale or cleared out next to normal
epithelium. A polyp with adenomatous-looking cells at the base of the crypts
, and frilly hyperplastic cells at the surface, is still a hyperplastic
2. Sessile serrated polyp
Sessile serrated polyp usually has a smooth surface, often flat or sessile,
and may be covered with mucus. Recently,large (>1cm) hyperplastic polyps
occurring in the right colon were recognized as a distinct subtype of polyp
with malignant potential, associated with the microsatellite instability (as
in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer [HNPCC]) cancer pathway. They
are called either sessile serrated adenomas or sessile serrated polyps. It
basically presents with the architecture of hyperplastic polyp but with
dysplasia. Dysplasia may range from subtle to high-grade. Nuclear detail,
number and location of mitotic figures is necessary for diagnosis.
The crypts have characteristic dilation and branching at the base (“duck
feet”), and the epithelial cells maybe more eosinophilic (less mucin) and
pseudostratified than the usual hyperplastic polyp. However, mature goblet
cells and the frilly surface are still evident.
The difference is in the depth of proliferation: hyperplastic polyps show
mostly surface hyperplasia and expansion, whereas the sessile serrated group
is hyperplastic right down to the base. These are important to recognize,
because they should be treated clinically like an adenoma, not just a
An adenoma (at least in the tubular-to-villous family) is defined as a polyp
with low-grade dysplasia. Low-grade dysplasia in the colon indicates a
cytologic change and stands out from normal colon as looking blue on the
slide. Dysplasia begins abruptly on or near the surface and grows along
crypts toward the base. The cells lining the crypts and the surface become
tall and dark (because of depleted mucin) and have cigar-shaped and/or
pseudostratified hyperchromatic nuclei. Mitoses may be present but are
generally not apical.
In tubular adenomas, dysplastic epithelium spreads downward and the surface
remains relatively smooth. Villous adenomas grow on delicate stromal fronds.
Tubulovillous adenomas display combinations of these architectural patterns
, with villous sand tubular components accounting for more than 20% of the
polyp. The greater the villous component, the greater the tendency for
Management, prognosis and surveillance of different types of polyps
1. Hyperplastic polyp
Although small rectosigmoid hyperplastic polyps do not appear to increase
the risk of colorectal cancer, Small hyperplastic polyps are typically
biopsied or removed during endoscopy with biopsy forceps because they can be
difficult to differentiate from adenomatous polyps based on the appearance.
Surveillance colonoscopy is recommended in 10 years in the U.S. for patients
with small (<10mm) hyperplastic polyps confined to the rectum or sigmoid
2. Sessile serrated polyp
Sessile serrated polyps with foci of dysplasia are considered the likely
precursor lesions to sporadic microsatellite instability-high colon cancer.
It is believed that a molecular pathway with a high frequency of methylation
of CpG islands is involved. In particular, lesions with size more than or
equal to 10mm, located in the proximal colon or with the presence of
dysplasia possess higher risk for asynchronous advanced adenoma.
Due to the malignant potential it carries, this type of polyps is managed
clinically like adenomatous polyps and complete excision is recommended.
Considering its indistinct border, it is important to make sure the complete
removal during the endoscopy procedure.
Patients with size of the polyp less than 10mm AND with no dysplasia are
surveyed with colonoscopy in five years, similar to low risk adenomas.
Whereas patients with size of the polyp larger than or equal to 10mm or with
dysplasia are screened by colonoscopy every three years, as to the
management of high-risk adenomas.
3. Adenomatous polyp
Only a small minority (less than 5%) of adenomas progress to cancer over 7
to 10 years. In general, the risk of progression is higher for advanced
adenomas with high grade dysplasia, more than 10 mm in size, or with a
In principle, adenomas should be resected completely. Small adenomas may be
removed by biopsy forceps. For larger adenomas, snare resection with or
without electrocautery or other advanced endoscopic resection may be
required. If endoscopic resection is not possible,surgical resection is
Surveillance depends on the comprehensive evaluation of the risk of the
adenoma. For low-risk adenomas, that is, only one or two small (<10mm)
tubular adenomas found by colonoscopy, the first surveillance colonoscopy
should be performed in 5 to 10 years. On the other hand, patients with an
advanced adenoma or 3-10 adenomas found on colonoscopy, the first
surveillance should be performed in three years. Patients with more than 10
adenomas should be screened in less than three years, and meanwhile must be
evaluated for a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome.
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