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^_^ 关于客家,翻了翻字典
[版面:八闽大地][首篇作者:woshixiaogou] , 2003年07月02日09:03:02 ,305次阅读,2次回复
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woshixiaogou
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发信人: woshixiaogou (hi), 信区: Fujian
标  题: ^_^ 关于客家,翻了翻字典
发信站: The unknown SPACE (Wed Jul  2 09:03:02 2003) WWW-POST

查了查《中国大百科全书》,居然没有“客家”这个词条,只有“客家话”,客家山歌;
然后翻开《大英百科全书》,里面对客家的地理位置也没有很具体的界定。

group of North Chinese who migrated to South China, especially Kwangtung,
Fukien, and Kwangsi provinces, during the fallof the Southern Sung dynasty in
the 1270s. Their origins remain obscure, but the people who became the Hakka
are thought to have lived originally in Honan and Shansi provinces in the
Huang Ho (Yellow River) valley. They moved southward in two large migrations,
one in the early 4th century and another in the late 9th century, perhaps to
escape warfare or the domination of Inner Asian tribesmen. Their final
migration in the 13th century took them farther south to their present areas
of concentration. The name Hakka is a Cantonese pronunciation of the Mandarin
word k'o-chia (“guest people”), which the northerners were called to
distinguish them from the pen-ti, or natives.

Having settled in South China in their own communities, the Hakka never became
fully assimilated into the native population. Unlike most other Chinese before
the 20th century, they never allowed their women to bind their feet, and they
speak a language that has affinities with both Cantonese, the language of the
people of Kwangtung province, and Mandarin, the language of much of northern
and central China; many of the Hakka tongue's initial sounds are a bridge
between the two dialects.

An extremely industrious, shrewd people, the Hakka tend to be very clannish.
During the 18th and 19th centuries, when conditions in South China became very
bad and land quite scarce, the Hakka often were involved in land feuds with
the pen-ti. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), which is said to have resulted
in the death of more than 20,000,000 people and completely shattered South
China, initially grew out of these local conflicts. Although the pen-ti
eventually joined the revolt, Taiping leadership was mainly of Hakka origin.

After the rebellion, the Hakka continued to be involved in little skirmishes
with their neighbours, as a result of which many migrated to other areas.
Today many Hakka live in such widely scattered locations as Taiwan, Malaysia,
Singapore, Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak, and even Jamaica. In South China they
continue to dwell mainly in the less fertile upland areas and in Hong Kong.



--
※ 来源:.The unknown SPACE bbs.mit.edu.[FROM: 213.224.]

 
woshixiaogou
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我的博客
[回复] [回信给作者] [本篇全文] [本讨论区] [修改] [删除] [转寄] [转贴] [收藏] [举报] [ 2 ]

发信人: woshixiaogou (hi), 信区: Fujian
标  题: Re: ^_^ 关于客家,翻了翻字典
发信站: The unknown SPACE (Wed Jul  2 09:07:26 2003) WWW-POST

《微软大百科全书》:
Hakka (Chinese, “guest” or “stranger”), term applied to a migratory people
of southern China. They are generally considered a Han Chinese ethnic group.
The Hakka have often been persecuted by the natives of the regions in which
they have settled. Chiefly agricultural, they differ from the Chinese majority
in dress and customs, and they speak a distinct dialect that is related to
those of southern China. During persecution-free periods, as from the
beginning of the Earlier Han dynasty (206 bc) to the end of the Later Han
dynasty (ad 220), several Hakka attained high public office. During the Tang
(T’ang) dynasty (618-907) they settled in the mountains of Fujian (Fukien)
Province, and during the 13th century they fought in the Chinese imperial army
against Mongol military leader Kublai Khan. They were again persecuted, after
the 14th century, under the Ming dynasty, and moved to Guangdong (Kwangtung)
Province. One of the best known of the Hakka is Hong Xiuquan, leader of the
Taiping Rebellion.

Microsoft® Encarta® Reference Library 2003. © 1993-2002
Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

其中有一句读着比较分特:

“They were again persecuted, after the 14th century, under the Ming dynasty,
and moved to Guangdong (Kwangtung) Province.”

说得好像全客家人现在都搬到广东去了一样。


【 在 woshixiaogou (hi) 的大作中提到: 】
: 查了查《中国大百科全书》,居然没有“客家”这个词条,只有“客家话”,客家山歌

: 然后翻开《大英百科全书》,里面对客家的地理位置也没有很具体的界定。
:
: group of North Chinese who migrated to South China, especially Kwangtung,
: Fukien, and Kwangsi provinces, during the fallof the Southern Sung dynasty
in
: the 1270s. Their origins remain obscure, but the people who became the Hakka
: are thought to have lived originally in Honan and Shansi provinces in the
: Huang Ho (Yellow River) valley. They moved southward in two large
migrations,
: one in the early 4th century and another in the late 9th century, perhaps to
: escape warfare or the domination of Inner Asian tribesmen. Their final
: migration in the 13th century took them farther south to their present areas
: of concentration. The name Hakka is a Cantonese pronunciation of the
Mandarin
: word k'o-chia (“guest people”), which the northerners were called to
: distinguish them from the pen-ti, or natives.
:
: Having settled in South China in their own communities, the Hakka never
became
: fully assimilated into the native population. Unlike most other Chinese
before
: the 20th century, they never allowed their women to bind their feet, and
they
: speak a language that has affinities with both Cantonese, the language of
the
: people of Kwangtung province, and Mandarin, the language of much of northern
: and central China; many of the Hakka tongue's initial sounds are a bridge
: between the two dialects.
:
: An extremely industrious, shrewd people, the Hakka tend to be very clannish.
: During the 18th and 19th centuries, when conditions in South China became
very
: bad and land quite scarce, the Hakka often were involved in land feuds with
: the pen-ti. The Taiping Rebellion (1850–64), which is said to have resulted
: in the death of more than 20,000,000 people and completely shattered South
: China, initially grew out of these local conflicts. Although the pen-ti
: eventually joined the revolt, Taiping leadership was mainly of Hakka origin.
:
: After the rebellion, the Hakka continued to be involved in little skirmishes
: with their neighbours, as a result of which many migrated to other areas.
: Today many Hakka live in such widely scattered locations as Taiwan,
Malaysia,
: Singapore, Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak, and even Jamaica. In South China they
: continue to dwell mainly in the less fertile upland areas and in Hong Kong.
:
:
:


--
※ 来源:.The unknown SPACE bbs.mit.edu.[FROM: 213.224.]

 
woshixiaogou
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[回复] [回信给作者] [本篇全文] [本讨论区] [修改] [删除] [转寄] [转贴] [收藏] [举报] [ 3 ]

发信人: woshixiaogou (hi), 信区: Fujian
标  题: Re: ^_^ 关于客家,翻了翻字典
发信站: The unknown SPACE (Wed Jul  2 09:09:18 2003) WWW-POST

最后啊,还是在一个网站上看到了比较详细的介绍:

http://www.hakkaonline.com/yanjiu/fenbu.htm

关于客家分布地域的讨论

  客家到底分布在哪些地域?要准确回答这个问题,离不开全面的实地调查。但在目前
情况下,似乎完全实地调查的条件还不够成熟。因此,目前研究者们多只能通过采集各地
调查的资料,加以分析统计,进行大体上的估计。
  罗香林先生在客家地域分布问题上进行过稍为详细的分析。罗香林先生“本想到闽、
粤、赣各客家居地周行一遭”,但未能如愿,只能“根据各地方志书及谱牒,以及个人亲
向客家人士访问所得的消息,与夫其他零星记载,以为排比的资料。”
  罗香林先生调查客家分布的结果大致如下:
1、福建省
  纯客住县:长汀,宁化,上杭,武平,永定,将乐,沙县,南平
  非纯客住县:清流,连城,龙岩,明溪,平和,诏安,崇安两广地区客家人分布简图
2、江西省
  纯客住县:寻乌,安远,定南,龙南,全南,信丰,南康,安南,崇义,上犹
  非纯客住县:赣县,兴国,于都,会昌,宁都,石城,瑞金,广昌,永丰,万安,遂
川,吉安,万载,萍乡,修水,吉水,泰和
3、广东省
  纯客住县:梅县,兴宁,五华,平远,蕉岭,大埔,连平,和平,龙川,紫金,仁化
,始兴,英德,翁源,陆河,赤溪
  非纯客住县:南雄,曲江,乐昌,乳源,连县,阳山,惠阳,海丰,陆丰,博罗,增
城,龙门,宝定,东莞,花县,清远,佛冈,开平,中山,番禺,从化,揭阳,饶平,信
宜,潮安,河源,丰顺,鹤山,徐闻,阳春,三水,惠来,化州,潮阳,新丰,罗定,台
山,连山,惠东,封川
4、海南省海南地区客家人分布简图
  非纯客住县:临高,陵水,广宁,儋县,定安,崖县,澄迈,万宁
5、广西省
  非纯客住县:防城,合蒲,钦县,桂平,贵县,苍梧,平南博白,玉林,北流,藤县
,贺县,武宣,象县,横县,武鸣,陆川,宜山,柳州,融安,鹿寨,昭平,平乐,宾阳
,邕宁,钟山,荔蒲,三江,罗城,柳城,来宾,阳朔,蒙山,崇 左,东兰,南丹,信
都 ,金秀,凤山,马山,环江,扶馁,宁明,河池
6、湖南省
  非纯客住县:汝城,郴县,浏阳,平江,宜章
7、四川省
  非纯客住县:涪陵,巴县,荣昌,隆昌,泸县,内江,资中,新都 ,广汉,成都,
双流,灌县,会理,新繁
8、贵州省台湾地区客家人分布简图
  非纯客住县:榕江
9、台湾省
  非纯客住县:台北,彰化,桃园,新竹,台中,高雄,花莲,屏东,苗栗,南投,云


  以上罗先生的调查结果,有一些已为今天的研究者所置疑。事实上,由于目前条件之
局限,研究者们也只能据手头掌握的资料,进行一些考证性工作,实地调查仍没能实现。
或许这有赖于各地(尤其是客家分布地区)研究者共同努力,步调一致地集中进行调查。
一个或许较可行的方法是:利用全国人口普查的机会,在调查项目上增加一些如“语言”
等较有区别性代表性的项目;借此对客家分布地域及人口状况等作出比较正确的统计。就
现在来说,研究者们普遍认为,客家人的分布地域,恐怕远远不止已知的省份和地区。


--
※ 来源:.The unknown SPACE bbs.mit.edu.[FROM: 213.224.]

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